What language are the Dead Sea Scrolls written in?

The Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered between 1947 and 1956, are considered one of the most important archaeological finds of the 20th century. They hold immense historical, religious, and linguistic significance. In this blog post, we’ll explore the languages in which these ancient texts were written and delve into the reasons why multiple languages were used.

The Languages of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls were written predominantly in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. These languages represent the linguistic diversity in the region during the Hellenistic and Roman periods—when the texts were written—reflecting the cultural exchanges and complexities of the era.

1. Hebrew

Hebrew is the primary language of the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is the language of most biblical texts and religious literature discovered in the region, including the majority of the sectarian works—those texts that indicate the particular beliefs and practices of a specific community. Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls helps scholars better understand the development and transformation of the Hebrew language and provides valuable insights into the linguistic context of the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Jewish literature.

2. Aramaic

Aramaic, a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew, also features prominently in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Aramaic was the common language of many Near Eastern communities from the 6th century BCE and even functioned as the official language of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the Scrolls, it appears in a variety of texts such as sectarian, biblical, and parabiblical works. The presence of Aramaic testifies to the cultural and linguistic diversity of the population in the Second Temple period and provides significant data for the study of the texts within their historical, social, and religious contexts.

3. Greek

Greek is the third and least represented language in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Hellenistic Era, which began after the conquests of Alexander the Great, saw the spread of Greek language and culture across the Eastern Mediterranean. By the time the Dead Sea Scrolls were written, Greek had become the lingua franca of the region, and its presence in both biblical and sectarian texts highlights the influence of Greek culture on Jewish communities in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

Understanding the Multilingual Nature of the Scrolls

The multilingual nature of the Dead Sea Scrolls is a testimony to the complex linguistic environment in which they were written. The coexistence of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek in these ancient texts sheds light on the cultural interactions and exchanges that shaped the lives of the communities that produced the Scrolls.

Studying these texts adds depth to our understanding of ancient languages, the development of religious traditions, and the historical context in which the Dead Sea Scrolls were created. The linguistic diversity of these extraordinary artifacts continues to captivate scholars, who work tirelessly to unlock the mysteries sealed within their enigmatic scripts.