Everything you need to know about the Mongolian language

Do you want to learn a new language? If so, consider learning Mongolian! This fascinating language is spoken by over 5 million people in Mongolia and other parts of the world.

In this article, we’re going to tell you everything you need to know about the Mongolian language.

We will discuss the basics of the Mongolian language, including its alphabet, pronunciation, grammar, and more!

Where is the Mongolian language spoken?

As you’d guess, Mongolian is the native language of Mongolia.

About 107,000 Mongolians, which is close to 3.9 per cent of the total population, live abroad according to the 2010 census. Many live in South Korea, the US, The Czech Republic, China, Japan and Russia – meaning you’ll find communities of Mongolian speakers all over the world.

What language family is Mongolian in?

Mongolian is a member of the Mongolic language family.

It’s a language family without any living relative languages. The now extinct Khitan, Tuyuhun, and Tuoba languages can be considered para-Mongolic.

This language family is closely related to the Turkic and Tungusic language families.

What are the origins of Mongolian?

The origins of Mongolian can be traced back to the 13th century when it was first spoken by the Mongols. Since then, it has undergone many changes and has been influenced by other languages, such as Russian and Chinese.

There are 5 stages that make up the history of the Mongolian language.


From approximately the 4th century AD until the 12th century AD, Mongolian was influenced by Common Turkic. This influence can be seen in the language’s morphology and syntax.

Common Turkic was a language that was spoken by the Turks, which is the largest Turkic language family. It is also the ancestor of all Turkish languages.

Proto-Mongolic -From approximately the 13th century AD, spoken around the time of Chinggis Khan.

Proto-Mongolic, which was spoken around the time of Chinggis Khan. This period is also known as the Mongol Empire.

During this time, the language underwent a lot of changes and was influenced by other languages, such as Russian and Chinese.

Middle Mongol

Mongolian underwent several changes during the Middle Mongol period. Depending on the classification, this period is spoken from the 13th century until the early 15th century or late 16th century.

As Mongolian continued to be influenced by other languages, such as Russian and Chinese. As a result, it became more complex and its grammar and syntax changed.

Classical Mongolian

Classical Mongolian is the language that was used in literary texts. It was spoken from approximately 1700 to 1900.

During this time, the language became more standardized and its vocabulary became more extensive.

Modern Mongolian

The modern form of Mongolian is the language that is currently spoken.

It began to emerge in the early 1900s and has undergone several changes since then. The standard Mongolian language has been in official use since 1919.

What is the alphabet of Mongolian?

The alphabet of Mongolian consists of 26 letters—7 vowels, 2 diphthongs, and 17 consonants—and is written vertically and left to right. The alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script, which was introduced to Mongolia in the 12th century.

How is Mongolian written?

Mongolian has been written in a variety of scripts throughout its history. The most common are the Mongolian script, Cyrillic script, and Latin script.

The Mongolian script is the oldest form of writing and was used until the 13th century. The Cyrillic script was introduced in the 12th century and is still used today. The Latin script was introduced in the 1920s and is also still used today.

What are some Mongolian spoken dialects?

Mongolian is spoken in a variety of dialects, which can be divided into three main groups: Khalkha, Oirat, and Buryat.

Khalkha is the most common dialect and is spoken by the majority of Mongolians. Oirat is spoken by the Oirat people, who are a minority group in Mongolia. Buryat is spoken by the Buryat people, who are also a minority group in Mongolia.

How do you pronounce Mongolian words?

Mongolian words are pronounced according to the following rules:

– Vowels are always pronounced separately. For example, the word ‘Mongolia’ is pronounced as mon-GOAL-ya.

– The letter ‘g’ is always pronounced like the ‘g’ in ‘go’. For example, the word ‘gal’ is pronounced as GAHL.

– The letter ‘h’ is always silent. For example, the word ‘khorovod’ is pronounced as khor-o-vod.

What are the basic sounds of Mongolian?

The basic sounds of Mongolian are similar to those of English. However, there are also some unique sounds in Mongolian that you will need to learn.

What are some interesting features of Mongolian grammar?

Some features of Mongolian include its complex grammar, rich vocabulary, and many dialects.

Simple aspects of Mongolian grammar

Mongolian does not have genders and there is no definite article,

When it comes to plurals, things are also pretty simple, with not much difference between nouns and adjectives.

Mongolian grammar is relatively simple. There are no genders, and there are only two tenses (past and present).

When it comes to Mongolian word order Subject – Object – Verb is the norm, although there are some exceptions to this.

Difficult aspects of Mongolian grammar

Verbs are one of the harder parts of the Mongolian language to grasp. They can be conjugated in a variety of ways, depending on the tense, mood, and person. There are also a number of irregular verbs, which can be difficult to remember.

How do you pronounce Mongolian words?

Mongolian pronunciation can be challenging for English speakers, but with a little practice it’s not too difficult to master. In general, Mongolian words are pronounced as they are written. However, there are a few exceptions. For example, the letter ‘х’ is pronounced as ‘h’, and the letter ‘ж’ is pronounced as ‘j’.

What is vowel harmony in Mongolian like?

Mongolian has both a tongue root harmony and a rounding harmony. In Mongolian, the back vowels (i.e. those that are pronounced with the tongue at the back of the mouth) are harmonized with the front vowels, and the rounded vowels are harmonized with the unrounded vowels. For example, the word ‘khorovod’ is pronounced as khor-o-vod, where the ‘o’ in both ‘khoro’ and ‘vod’ are harmonized with each other.

What are the basic greetings in Mongolian?

The most common greeting in Mongolian is “sain baina uu?” which means “how are you?”. Other greetings include “tanglai shv?“, meaning “good morning”, and “tagnal shv?”, meaning “good evening”.

Is Mongolian hard to learn?

Mongolian is not hard to learn, but it can be challenging for English speakers. With a little practice, however, you’ll be able to master the basics of this fascinating language.

For those without experience in Cyrillic, learning this will be the first challenge.

Another issue is, unlike other European languages, there are fewer resources online and fewer language teachers available to help you learn Mongolian.

Resources for learning Mongolian

Mongolian Language \ Nomiin Ger School – A great Youtube channel with high-quality lessons.

Colloquial Mongolian: The Complete Course for Beginners – One of the most comprehensive textbooks available.

A beautiful, historical language well worth learning

Learning Mongolian can be a great way to connect with the people and culture of Mongolia. It’s also a unique and interesting language that will make you stand out from the crowd. So why not give it a try? You might be surprised at how much you enjoy it!